How Reality Affects Rationality

Rationality, predictability and utility maximization are indispensible factors that guide the framework of standard economics. These factors contribute towards our understanding of economic flux in an idealistic world, and are hence considered important while defining the basic laws of economics. In reality, however, decisions made by humans may be influenced by psychological and emotional factors which lie beyond the scope of standard assumptions in economics. The concept of behavioural economics plays an instrumental role to complement this void in standard economics. It tries to amalgamate psychology and economics to understand the reasons behind irrational decisions made by humans which hinder predictability and thwart utility maximization.


How does behavioural economics work?

The notion of idealistic, calculated and risk neutral behaviour goes for a toss, when people make decisions with ‘bounded rationality’. The idea implies that there exist limits up until which rationality in decision making is exhibited, beyond which, cognitive factors may disproportionately drive the decision making process. For example, when shopping for a particular product in a mall, customers may not have sufficient time and resources to compare every single product available in the required category. In such a situation, lower pricing, larger quantity, better brand perception, or merely greater product visibility on shelf, may be the factors on which the buying decision is based.

‘Prospect theory’ adds another layer to this idea, by considering the unequal value that humans associate with perceived gains and losses. The theory demonstrates that in a decision making situation, people tend to be risk or loss averse and prefer certainty of returns. For example, in a probability game, if one option offers a certain pay-out of $100, while another option offers a 75% chance of winning $150 and a 25% chance of winning nothing, then individuals tend to select the first option, even though it has a lesser statistical expected value as compared to the other option. This happens because the certainty of $100 pay-out is highly valued and individuals try to avert the risk of perceived loss at 25% chance.

Similarly, choices can be impacted by comparison of obtained gains to certain reference points that individuals have in their mind, such as, the possible gains from other choices or gains obtained by other individuals. Moreover, behaviour associated with social preferences like fairness, reciprocity, equity, etc. may further influence a customer’s choices. For example, a company may run a campaign wherein for each product sold, a certain sum of money would be donated for a social cause, and customers may find such a campaign appealing enough for their decision making process to be influenced.


How is behavioural economics leveraged for marketing?

When marketing different product or service offerings, businesses often utilize the above mentioned factors to drive customers towards purchases. Some of the methods adopted are as follows:


        The Nudge Factor :

This method involves manipulation of the environment surrounding the decision making process, such that it prompts or ‘nudges’ the customer towards predictably making one choice over other. For example in retail outlets, impulse buying is nudged onto the customers when they are on their way to checkout or billing counter, by placing chocolates or other sweets right next to the counter. Here, customers tend to be not as critical towards considering their buying decision as they were during the in-store shopping, and a tempting, attractive, sugary treat easily sways them into making a purchase. The online shopping or e-commerce version of this method is the display of ‘frequently bought together’ items or other complementary items while customers are on their way towards the check out.


      • Framing of Choices : 

Choice architecture can also be tweaked in ways that can persuade customers to make certain purchases. The Decoy effect is a well-known example of this and is most popularly demonstrated with the help of popcorns sold at movie theatres. While buying popcorn, if only two sizes of popcorn buckets are available, namely a ‘Small’ size for ₹ 49 and a ‘Large’ size for ₹ 99, then the ‘Large’ bucket appears relatively expensive and does not sell as much. However, if a third, decoy item is introduced as a ‘Medium’ size option with a price of ₹ 89, then the ‘Large’ option begins to appear as the best choice, and this may increase its sale. Customers can thus be persuaded towards one particular choice by introducing a disproportionately priced decoy item. Following illustration depicts the same.




      • Default Bias :

When choosing from several options, customers are more likely to maintain the status quo and go with the default option, if provided. This happens as people tend to feel more relaxed and secure about not having to deal with evaluating all the options or actively deviating from the status quo and attracting potential risks. For example, customers using a web service often
subscribe for receiving emails and marketing messaging as it is set as the default, pre-ticked option, which they rarely take the trouble to change. Similarly, subscription plans set as default option under ‘our recommendation’ or ‘most popular’ tags, add credibility to the already risk averse option and may obtain a higher subscription rate.


       Priming Effect:

This effect involves influencing decisions of customers by subconsciously directing their behaviour. This can be done by setting up subtle visual, auditory or olfactory clues in the environment, such as, use of certain scents or suggestive music, use of a ‘premium’ or ‘bestseller’ tag on products, etc. Advertising plays an important role in conveying this effect as priming can also be used for creating positive association between a desired attribute and your brand. Such associations, if developed using sensory stimuli, can be used to trigger a desire for buying from the brand upon sensory stimulation. For example, the tagline ‘Red Bull Gives You Wings’ may help establish an association between the Red Bull brand and the feeling of being energized and customers may more often choose to buy Red Bull, whenever they feel fatigue or weariness. Red Bull drives this idea by hosting, sponsoring or advertising in adventure sports and events, an illustration of which has been shown below.


It is thus evident that several marketing techniques have been developed to account for the behavioural aspects in economics which can introduce substantial changes in business offerings. Marketers are always on the lookout for new opportunities to influence customer behaviour in a favourable way and implementation of behavioural economics can certainly prove to be a useful tool in this endeavour.

Posted in All.



Have you ever wondered why shopkeepers use mannequins to display their apparel collection, why there is always an attractive channel – showing a football match or a serial or any song – playing on televisions in an electronics shop? Have you ever felt like having those similar cool looking shoes you saw a person wearing or having those white color earbuds your friend uses? Well, thanks to the industries which are investing a tremendous amount of money and other resources in studying consumer behavior.

Consumer behavior is the study of the processes and factors a consumer considers before and after buying the goods. The study helps marketers to understand the needs and wants of the consumer, what are the products needed in the market place, and how to best present them to attract the buyer. It helps them know that what do the customers buy, why do consumers buy, how frequently do customers purchase and many other things.

So, here we will talk about one of the most critical elements – Mirror neurons – which generally helps marketers to influence our buying behavior.

What are Mirror Neurons?

Mirror neurons are the neurons that become active when an action is performed and when that same action is observed.

Have you ever wondered why, when your favorite team scores a goal, you pump your hands in the air? Or why tears roll up in your eyes when you watch your favorite hero crying in a movie? Or that feeling of energy and dance that floods through when you watch your favorite dancer dancing in the film? You can give all the credits to mirror neurons. When we watch someone do something, whether it’s scoring a goal or our favorite actor dancing, our brain reacts as if we are performing these tasks by ourselves.

Mirror neurons also explain why we feel happy when we see someone happy or sad when we see someone sad. Our mirror neurons get activated when we see someone in pain, and we feel the pain as if it is ours.

Yawn. Do you feel like yawning now, or are you actually yawning, or are you getting that initial feel of tiredness?  I am, not because I am tired, but because I have simply typed the word yawn. Mirror neurons not only become activated when we see someone performing those actions, but they also get activated when we read about someone performing that action.


How do Mirror Neurons affect our behavior?

Let’s take a real-life experience of mine. Once I was passing the front window of the United Colors of Benetton (UCB) showroom. I observed a mannequin wearing a slim fit jean, an attractive t-shirt, and a perfectly fitting black leather jacket. He was looking great, confident, relaxed, and appealing. There subconsciously, even though I had put some extra kgs, I thought even I could look like that if I bought that outfit. I could be him. At least my brain was telling me that, even though I was not aware of that at the moment. Next thing I remember, I entered the showroom with my debit card and purchased those jeans, t-shirt, and jacket. I felt like, along with those clothes, I have bought that image and attitude too.

You will wonder that not only ours but others’ behavior with us also affects our purchasing behavior and influences our purchase decisions. According to a study conducted by two researchers of the University of California and the University of Michigan, exposure to brief images of smiling or sad faces affected the amount test subjects were willing to pay for a product. Participants who saw happy faces were willing to pay twice for a product as compared to those who saw angry faces. It means that managers who teach their retail serving employees to smile while attending a customer are on the right track.

However, the effect of mirror neurons is not limited to offline shopping. For the last few years, we have observed a tremendous increase in the number of unboxing videos shared by social media influencers. Lately, many companies have also joined the league. But how do these influence us as consumers? Let’s consider an example of a video showing a person unboxing one’s brand new iPhone 11. So, when a fan watches this video, it seems that she watching someone else unboxing their brand-new phone gives her as much pleasure as opening that new iPhone herself. In fact, there are multiple video-sharing websites that serve this kind of vicarious pleasure. Chad Stoller, executive director of Emerging Platforms at the ad agency Organic, explains, “It’s the culmination of lust. There are a lot of people who aspire, who want to have something they may not be able to afford, and they can’t buy it yet. They are looking for some way to satiate their appetite.” Or maybe it’s just mirror neurons at work.




This is probably the most difficult question which an employer as well as an employee faces…Initiative seems to be easy to say but difficult to work upon..When it comes to initiative we always wait for someone to do that..We wont do it..We would expect others to do it..The best we could do is to respond or react..

An employer expects that an employee would take an initiative with regards to new ideas and implement while an employee that he needs to be motivated ( mostly in financial terms ) which would make him take more initiative. Both the terms are relative & would always be correct based on the situation which you are in..At every stage of our life right from school to college to corporate , we should be taking initiative and create a change but we always wait..

We have become Masters in Waiting…Waiting for the right job..Waiting for the right girl..Waiting for the right opportunity..Waiting for the market to improve..this waiting game has made us more lethargic..We wait for things to happen..We never know what is the right time..We dont know when it would come..

Lets make a difference by taking initiatives & doing actual execution.

Posted in All.
This is one of the most difficult questions which we face today. Are we really social or we are just trying to be social. Technology makes people come closer or is it the opposite.
The more the use the larger the gap which is happening within people.  Talks are happenings on chats rather one on one or face to face. The charm of talking & listening is missing & so is the ‘ emotional quotient ‘. The so called ‘social quotient’ would be a big challenge for everyone where the ‘status’ matters.  Trust has gone for a toss…& so has the interaction between humans.  A time would come where families & friends would be visible on status & updates.
Technology has its own pros & cons but don’t make it a habit. Use it in the best sense & for the betterment of people. Will we get an answer to this question or will our future generations be more socially inactive..think about it..

Right or Wrong…We always see things in black & white..But does it really happen that way..

Something which is right for someone might be wrong for someone else..Same situation..Two different people..Two Perceptions…But you cant judge whether its right or wrong…

We judge people based on our experiences of our life..But sometimes that could be risky..The old school of thought for women was that she cant work & even if she does she should be back by 7.00 clock. Someone who breaks this are treated as outcast as hypocrites. Isnt it suprising that we keep changing our rules as situations & circumstances change..Cant we put ourselves in their shoes & think the way they are thinking..

Employee & Employer are good examples of this..So is before marriage & after marriage situations..The world would be a better place if we look at situations from different angles i.e. perceptions..
We need to take the best out of every situations. If we do that , we would be happy like never before…


Lesson No 1 – Any publicity is good publicity
Lesson No 2 – User generated content has the power to explore the creativeness in people
Lesson No 3 – Interesting ideas always catch the attention of people
Lesson No 4 – Social Media has the power to build perceptions which can make or break a brand
Lesson No 5 – Integration of Offline-Online media is very much important & relevant in today’s market

Flat 50% off – Everywhere..Thats what we see Malls, Shopping Complexes

Any Brand or Any Store..Discounts..Discounts..Discounts all the way..But does the market needs this .. The competition forced people to go with discounts or is discount the only way of getting customers..

With e-commerce trying to make its mark , brands are coming up with more & more discounts. A time would come that we would see discount all the year round. Discounts have grown but the quality of service has gone from bad to worse. Customer Engagement is just present in Books & not in practicality. Thats where the approach needs to change. Customer today is confused with so much of advertising wherever he goes. The time he gets up till the time he sleeps..

So what should the brands now need to do.. Spend some time thinking & drive sales through better customer engagement programs. Technology is important but not the only thing which matters. We need to look into our past & see why did unorganized retailing did better..The only reason was Relationship..Thats what matters..

Machines can never replace the human touch.. Neither can FB or Twitter or Whats App..
Use these medias effectively

Probably one of the most easiest thing to do when we were a kid..But  becomes difficult as we grow up..

“Curiosity” is one of the greatest thing which every human being possesses..Being curious is what we should at whatever stage of our life..

Most of the times in our life when we become old we stop being curious & get use to the monotonous life without hope & without life..We stop exploring..We stop asking questions which forms are base about what we are today..

Many of our problems regularly occur because we don’t question. We feel we have the answers to all our problems & we end up coming up with monotonous solutions which doesn’t work in today’s scenario..

Technology has made people equipped as a mechanical entity rather than a thinking entity. Hence the next generation would face lots of challenge if they get into too much of techno-mode rather than “BEING CURIOUS”..


Its one of those interesting topics which makes me think everytime..Marketing..What is marketing ? How it has changed ? Why it has changed ? & many more questions which keep coming to the mind..

Dynamics of Industries have changed but we still use the same old tried & tested formula of PRINT & TV..The new formulas of online are not working. Survival of online is dependent on the offline media. The more information is available the lesser is the usage of brain..Everyone talks about technology but doesnt use it the way it should be which really makes me think that have we changed.. The answer is always NO which comes to my mind..Shelf life of any marketing campaign has reduced & neither any of these marketing campaigns have the kind of impact which they use to..Does that mean people can make decisions easily..Doesnt seem to be the case..Decisions are getting delayed which is increasing the sales cycle for any product..

Somewhere the mindset needs to change..Economics & Psychology have become an important aspect of any communication media vehicle..Lets hope people realize it & start using it..
& every marketer & every college takes a note of it..

Creativity..One of the most awesome terms i have come across..Creativity has always been restricted to designers & artists..why should it be restricted to aesthetic sense..It is an important aspect of our life..Creativity is required everywhere & every moment of our life..The problem is that we restricts its use..its about making things simple..Making processes simple..Right from an Engineer to a MBA student..All of them have to use creative..if we don’t work would become monotonous & boring..

Creativity for companies would come via about how to increase the sales TO making your clients or employees happy TO expand to newer horizons.. The problem is that we use the same monotonous model of traditional marketing or same old research methodologies which no longer work in present scenario.. hence we need to break this clutter & come up with creativity in every aspect of our life…

Whats your take on the SAME ….

The most fascinating topic..I feel..Discount..right from 5% to 75%.. its everywhere..all across the city..
across various brands..across various retail what people works..but only in SHORT TERM..Unique VALUE of discount is getting lost in the clutter of discounts..Discounts have to be there but how much & when to have is very important..Customer engagement has gone for a TOSS..

Customer Engagement is always & always going to be a major aspect for any business.
It worked before , it will work now & would always work…

Whats your take on this..

Interesting..but thats how we have been brought up in our life…Dont ask just listen..When we were in school, teachers and parents made us listen and follow the rules..We were not allowed to question we grew up, we started fearing about things..We kept listening n listening..
College started..Same thing continued..whatever professors taught we use to listen but we lost the habit of asking questions when we were kids..we behaved like a sheep..herd mentality..When we started working, we listen to what the boss says because we are taught BOSS is ALWAYS RIGHT..
This problem of just listening without asking has made us hate our work n life..We end up being frustrated because the power of thinking has got rusted..IDEAS are not allowed to grow and get implemented which could make us and the world more better..
Sounds is interesting..the power of we grow elder we have the lost the charm n the power of why..Questioning..Something which we use to do when we were young..But as time progressed we just accepted things the way they are..

When we were small, we were curious enough to ask things..that helped us built n learn more..but now things are different..We are in a frame of mind that we cant question things..fear has crept in our mind which doesnt allow us to question things..bcz there is fear we might be looked as fools if we ask questions..
But questioning yourself , people , friends , relatives is important for our development as well as for the whole system…Some people would agree while some people wont..But its a nice learning curve which would help us many problems which are inborne in the system…
Whats your take on this???
Chalta hain..sab chalta hain aur chalta rahega..thats how our life is defined by us..Padhai nahi karna..Assignment nahi complete karni..Office Late Pahuchna..Meeting main Late jaana..Salary nahi badti..Placement nahi milna ..

Late utna..Ghar pe Daru peeke jaana..Copy Karna..Office main facebook pe baitha rehna…Baap ka Paisa Udana..Party Karna..Drugs Lena..

Sarkar Kaam nahi karti..Inflation badta hain..Fuel Prices Badna..sab chalta hain humko..because we wont get up..n change the system..

Sab Chalta hain…this attitude has now become a part of our life..par kab tak…This attitude is good sometimes but sometimes it might b the worst things to happen..Situation changes..Hence our attitude also needs to change too..We are happy criticising about it..Lets us be that spark that could change the attitude of us & the people around us..

What do u think ??? I m here to make a change..what about u..

one of the most interesting topics i came across…What is this funda of MONDAY to FRIDAY…This is the life of an employee..a person who works for others..earns more for others n less for himself…n is happy with safe n secure life..he waits for the saturdays n sundays so that he could rest and enjoy..but does he really enjoy or is he running away from true enjoyment…MONDAY to MONDAY..this is the life of an enterpreneur..He runs for everything..he runs to find new accounts..he has to face talent problems, client problems, internal problems, management problems..his life revolves around solving problems..his life starts early n ends late in the night & continues it for 7 days a week, 365 days…But he is enjoying more as compared to his peers who havent taken the risk..Fear is not something which could disturb him..but makes him more stronger & stronger..Each day brings something new to his life..Adds some spice in Life..there is pain..but there is joy in that pain to..

What would you like to have ???? Monday to Friday or Monday to Monday

I love failures..We all are at some stage of our life..whether it was school, college , job, marriage , friends etc.. Failures makes us learn but we dont want to face it..We are afraid of failing…Failures makes us strong..Something which would be useful in long term..

We only are interested in winners..but we fail to realize that every winner goes through lots of failures in life..Whether it was Thomas Edison or Sachin Tendulkar or Abraham Lincoln..I am PROUD to be a FAILURE..Because it drives me more towards my GOAL..

There is something more which we need to do to change it.. Something which changes Failure to Success..For me or that matter people, Failure has made what I am TODAY..An ENTERPRENEUR


Habits..what are these..something which we get used to..somethings which becomes difficult to change.. Unconscious mind thats what matters..which makes decision most of the times..but we dont realize..
Why do market research for new product development fails ?? Because of the simple reason we answer from our conscious mind..which would give partial answers..
Why is it so that government bans cigarettes or booze impose so much of taxes but still they do good business?? its simple habits that makes the difference..
Lots to think upon..Marketing is going to change as time progresses..People who understand would make products which becomes a habit like a cellphone..whats ur take on this???
Salary the most important thing of our life..during graduation , after graduation this is the biggest question which we need to answer..But most of us dont have an answer..Many a times our decision of joining a company or a brand depends upon the salary component..Salary is important no doubt about that..But i guess its always to better to work for something which we are passionate about…What is the point working only for the sake of salary..9 to 5.. Monday to Friday..n then we wait for saturdays & sundays…
Life becomes boring the day we start avoiding Mondays..Everyone has an opinion so do i.. But i feel we should do what we like..In short we just dont work for MY Salary but its the other way around…
Pour in your opinions…

Learning has always been fun…Learning comes from various things of our Life..Every moment , every second there is a learning..But there is one thing which i learnt from my boss..which i would never forget..

Never Give Excuses..We are conditioned throughout our life to give excuses for everything.. We dont reach on time for meetings..we have excuses..We dont get placed..we have excuses.. We dont start our business.. we have excuses..We dont complete our work on time.. We have excuses…
This habit of excuses never stops…If we stop giving excuses in Life n start doing about what is expected out of us n B Proactive, the world could be much better…
Whats your opinion ??

Something we hear from Management Gurus. From Experienced People. From Stalwarts..

Learning to Unlearn..
World is constantly changing & evolving…Traditional things are getting challenged from fresh approaches of People..Hence we should start getting into the process of unlearning. Concepts learnt a decade is not necessary applicable in today’s scenario.. We should be open to change…
Change is THE MOST Important aspect of our LIFE..Old approach of Cold calling in sales doesn’t work…Thinking using Digital is tough & not required needs to rethought..Communication is no longer restricted to print media..It has evolved & has various facets to it..
Its applicable to everyone including me..I need to unlearn few things to make few things better than before..What about you ???

The easiest thing in Life is TO REACT

The 2nd easiest thing in Life is TO RESPOND
& the hardest thing in Life is TO INITIATE…
I guess we have always come across such situations..Where we either react or respond..Almost everyone does the same thing.. Politicians, Employees , Students…All… We are conditioned in such a way that we just react ..Mistake Happens..n We are ready to React to any situation…Reacting is intuitive & instinctive..Reacting is dangerous..This is what media does when Indian Team Loses on Tours…React..React..React…
Response is still a better proposition as compared to reaction..Response to Competitive threats..Response to Opportunities..
But its still pale in comparison to initiative..We lack the initiating skills..No one teaches it..It comes from come from comes from belief…
We need people to take initiatives at various stages of their life..I took it and change it…What about you???

The Story of 5 Minutes…

The story everyone has , everyone goes through…Significance of 5 Minutes..

TIME is an important entity of our Life. Many People would agree about it.. We expect people to value our time but do we value OTHERS Time.

Client gives us a call, We say we would return back the call in 5 minutes…Going out for party, we say we would be ready by 5 Minutes.

Someone must be waiting for you. Your Friend, Colleague, Client, Guest, Wife, Student, Parents etc.. The List would be never ending. Why does this happen ?? Why can’t we value our time & others time. If we calculate the amount of 5 minutes we have wasted of others, It would be Like a ERA..

I Guess most people would agree to the fact of 5 Min.. I would like to change the story of 5 Min. What about you?

Market Research..One of the common terms which all the companies talk about..How much do we understand about Market Research. Market Research for most people is going to & searching for information..Thats it…No Application…No use of common sense…Research has been restricted only to search engines not beyond it…Or Mostly its a CUT,COPY, PASTE job for most people.

Power of Primary Research & its credibility is very important..
In short,
Information from
1. Which source
2. What kind of
3. How much
becomes of critical importance…Sources of Information also becomes a very important aspect whether its searching for a job or a product or a service..
It would be nice if you people could share some good ideas about research too…

Craze of the Nation..

Toast of the Nation…Lots of articles being written about it…
Channels covering about it… Case Studies being made..It might even become a chapter in MBA Colleges very soon…But could we understand its simple basics..
Why did it work?
How did it work?
What made it work?
Or is it just going to be a trend which would people would forget…